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哪位大侠帮忙翻译下,汽车类的英文文献,谢谢了,急需

  1。2本课题研究基础1。2。1 四轮转向控制器主处理器的确定纵观工程机械的发展,在技术上大致经历了三次革命:柴油机的出现、液压技术的广泛应用以及电子技术,尤其是计算机技术的广泛应用。要使工程机械高效节能,就要对发动机和传动系统进行控制,合理分配功率,使其处于最佳工况;为了减轻驾驶员劳动强度和改善操纵性能,需要采用自动控制,实现工程机械自动化;要完成高技能的作业,就需要智能化;为了提高安全性,需要安全控制,进行运行状态监视,故障自动报警;随着建设领域的扩展,为了避免人员到达无法及不易接近的场所及作业环境十分恶劣的地方去作业,需要采用远距离遥控和无人驾驶技术。
  这一切都说明了工程机械当前的主要问题是控制问题。要解决控制问题,必须引入具有良好控制性能和信息处理能力的电子技术、传感器技术和电液控制技术以及相应的软件控制技术为一体的先进的控制器。 基于四轮转向的发展方向,目前国内外的公司对于四轮转向机构的控制主要采用的是数字控制,这是鉴于数字控制的很多优点:程序化控制,控制器按照所设计的控制规律进行运算和数字信息的处理,主要通过程序(即软件)来实现,若改变控制规律只需改变软件,而不必改变系统的硬件结构:控制精度高,在模拟控制系统中,控制器的精度由元件的精度而定,数字控制器精度由字长决定;稳定性好;软件复用,在模拟系统中,需用相同的硬件环境实现,数字控制器是程序控制,只需要设计和编写实现其模型的子程序模块,即可方便地实现多个功能的环节。
   目前各个厂家大多采用的是PLC、单片机应用于四轮转向控制器中,功能基本能够实现,相比较之下,信号处理能力较强的数字信号处理器(DSP)各方面均性能优于以上三种处理器。DSP (Digital Signal Processor)是新世纪数字化革命的核心。它是一种独特的微处理器,具有可编程性,且实时运行速度远远超过通用微处理器。
  强大的数据处理能力和高速的运行速度,是DSP最值得称道的两大特色。DSP芯片是一种特别适合进行数字信号处理的微处理器。它强调运算处理的实时性,因此除了具备普通微处理器所强调的高速运算和控制功能外,主要针对实时数字信号处理,在处理器结构、指令系统和数据流程上做了很大的改动。
  它具有灵活、精确、可靠性好、体积小、功耗低和易于大规模集成等优点。 1。2:2 四轮转向控制器己实现的基本功能在进行此课题研究之前,基于DSP的四轮转向控制器已具备以下基本功能: 1、具备三种工作模式:。前轮转向、全轮转向和斜行转向,能够进行模式切换,并能保证模式切换时过渡平稳。
   2、具有开机自检功能,当有不合系统要求的情况发生时,能够检查出错误的位置所在,并将相应的错误代码显示出来,以便操作人员及时检查并排除错误。 3、具有紧急制动功能,即当有错误发生时,如转角超出最大转角范围,或者超出所要求的转角,能够紧急制动进行错误检查和排除操作。
   4、在转向过程中进行模式切换时,系统具有回正功能。也就是说,从一个模式切换到另外一个模式的过程中,系统应该从初始转向状态回正到直线行驶的状态,经过回正过程后各个车轮应该处在零转角的位置,方向盘应该处于中位,然后才能进行另外一种模式下的转向操作。

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2018-03-06

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    1。2 topic research foundations1。2。1 The four-wheeler changes direction the assurance of the controller main processorTake a wide view the development of engineering machine, experienced three revolutions mostly on the technique:the emergence, liquid of the diesel engine press technical of extensively applied and electronics technique is the calculator is technical particularly of extensively applied。
    To make the engineering machine economize on energy efficiently will spread to move system to carry on a control towards launching machine and, reasonable allotment power, make it be placed in the best work condition;For easing a pilot to labor strength and improvement to manipulate function, need to adopt an automatic control, carry out an engineering machine automation;To complete the homework of high technical ability need intelligence to turn;For the sake of exaltation safety, demand safety control, carry on circulating appearance surveillance, the breakdown reports to the police automatically;Because the construction realm expands, in order not to the personnel arrive can't and not come-at-able place and the very bad place of the homework environment go to homework, need to be adopted long-distance leave remote control and no man to drive a technique。
    The all these all explained the current key problem of the engineering machine to control a problem。
  To resolve a control problem have to lead to go in to have the electronics technique that good control function and information handle an ability, spread the feeling machine technique and the electricity liquid control technique and correspond of software control technique is the forerunner's controller of integral whole。
    The development direction changed direction according to the four-wheeler, the domestic and international company changes direction organization to control to the four-wheeler currently main adoption of is a numeral control, this is owing to a lot of advantages of numerical control:the procedure turn a control, the controller carries on the processing of operation and numerical information according to the control regulation designed, mainly passing procedure(namely software) to carry out, if change control regulation need to change software, but need not change the hardware structure of system: control the accuracy is high, in the emulation the control the system, the accuracy of the controller from the accuracy of the component but settle, numerical controller accuracy from word long decision;Stability good;The software replies to use, needing a hardware environment of using the homology realization in the emulation the system, the numerical controller is a procedure control, the sub- procedure mold piece which need to be designed and write to carry out its model, can immediately carry out several links of functions expediently。
    Currently each factory house mostly adoptive is a PLC, single slice machine to apply to change direction controller in the four-wheeler in, the function is basic and can carry out, mutually in comparison, the digital signal processor(DSP) with stronger ability of the signal processing everyone's noodles all the function is above three kinds of better than processors。
    The DSP(the Processor of the Digital Signal) is the core that the new century numeral turns revolution。
  It is a kind of special microprocessor, having programmable, and the solid luck go speed far far above the in general use microprocessor。
    The movement speed of[with] strong ability and high speed of the data processing is the two greatest special featureses that the DSP is the most worthy of to call a way。
    The DSP chip is a kind of microprocessor which suits to carry on numerical signal to handle specially。
  It emphasizes operation processing of solid hour, so in addition to have common microprocessor to emphasize of high speed operation and control function, mainly aim at solid hour numerical signal processing, did to change to move very greatly on the processor structure, instruction system and the data process。
    It has vivid, accurate, credibility good, the physical volume is small, the achievement consume low with be easy to large-scale integration etc。
     advantage。1。2:2 four-wheelers change direction the basic function of the controller personal realizationChange direction controller according to the DSP four-wheeler before carrying on this topic to study have already had basic function as follows: 1, have three kinds of work modes:。
    Rotated ago to, whole rotations to and the inclined line changed direction, can carry on mode to cut over, and can promise the mode cuts over transfer steady。
     2, have to switch on from the check function, be have circumstance occurrence of being unsuited to the system request, can check a position place of mistake, and come out the false code manifestation for corresponding, in order to operation the personnel check to be alongside of to debug a mistake in time。
     3, have to make to move function urgently, then while having mistake occurrence, if turn Cape to outrun biggest turn Cape scope, or outrun request of turn Cape, can make to move to carry on a mistake a check and expel an operation urgently。
     4, while changing direction to carry on mode to cut over in the process, the system has positive function of return。
    Is also say, from a mode cut over to another a process of mode, system's shoulding start to change direction appearance back from the beginning is arriving the appearance that the straight line drove, hasing been returned to positive process behind each car wheel should be placed in zero become horny position, the steer device should be placed in medium, then then can carry on moreover a kind of mode under of change direction an operation。
  

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